Study of Skin and Scalp

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A lesion is a structural change in the tissues caused by injury or disease. These are of two types: 


primary and secondary. 

Primary Lesions

  • Macule : A small discoloured spot or patch on the surface of the skin, neither raised nor sunken. 

  • Papule : A small elevated pimple on the skin containing no fluid, but which may develop pus. 

  • Wheal : An itchy, swollen spot that lasts only for a few hours. This is usually caused by mosquito or insect bites. 

  • Tubercle : A soiled lump larger than a papule, which projects above the surface of the skin or lies within or under the skin, varying in size from a pea to a nut.

  • Tumour : An external swelling, varying in size, shape and colour. 

  • Vesicle: A blister with clear fluid init. It lies just beneath the epidermis and is smaller in size.

  • Bulla : A blister containing watery fluid. It is similar to a vesicle but larger in size. 

  • Pustule : An elevation of the skin with an inflamed base and which contains pus. It looks like a common pimple. 

Secondary Lesions

The secondary lesions are those skin diseases which develop in the later stages and are of a serious nature. These are : 

  •  Scale : An accumulation of the epidermal flakes . It may be dry or greasy. 

  • Crust ( Scab) : An accumulation of sebum and pus, mixed, perhaps, with the epidermal material. 

  • Excoriation : A skin abrasion produced by scratching or scraping. It may be due to the loss of superficial skin after an injury.

  • Fissure : A crack in the skin penetrating into the derma as in the case of a chapped skin. 

  • Ulcer : An open lesion on the skin or mucous membrane of the body, accompanied by pus and loss of skin depth.

  • Scar : It is likely to form after the healing of an injury or skin condition that has penetrated the dermal layer.

  • Stain : An abnormal discoloration of the skin.